On the Validity of Contract of Personal Security with Arms in the Sight of International Marine Safety
【Abstract in Chinese】 海盗行为威胁世界海运秩序和我国航运安全,各国在实践中发现借助军队护航有其局限性,因此很多航运主体更加青睐保安公司,实务中部分保安服务等级也升级至配备私人武装,但配备私人武装的合理性尚存质疑。我国政府不允许国内保安公司配备私人武装,很多航运主体转向雇佣配备私人武装的外国保安公司,并根据保安公司与客户之间的服务合同当中并无"配备武装"字样免责。考虑到默示接受行业习惯和限制适用意思自治原则两个问题,雇佣外国保安服务如果违反我国国内法的强制规定,我国航运主体同样应当承担相应法律责任。
【Abstract】 Internationally, piracy has been threatening the international shipping seriously. For the reason of the limits of military escort, those shipping agents are more inclined to hire Security Companies. Meanwhile, the level of the security service also has to upgrade to the height of being armed. Because the rationality of private armed has being questioned, the Chinese government does not allow the domestic Security Companies to equip with private arms, leading to the main part of the shipping agents turn to hire foreign ones with private arms instead. In the past, there were no words like being armed according to the contract between the security company and the customer, the customer used to claim for taking no responsibilities. But to investigate the contract from accepting the implied clauses and the limitation of the principle of autonomy, if the action of hiring foreign security services violate the domestic compulsory regulations, the Chinese shipping agents should also bear corresponding responsibilities according to the contract. Recently, China MSA has issued Regulations on Signing the Proves of Escorts with Private Armed Securities on Board, which will serves as new operational standards and policy guarantees for those domestic shipping agents hiring foreign Security Companies.
【Key words】 Private Arms； The Effect of Implied Clauses； The Limitation of Autonomy； Regulations on the Proves of Escorts；